【中醫簡史】周代 The Zhou or Chou Dynasty approx. 1100-221BC

周朝 (約公元前1100-221年) 

共分為四個時期:

* 西周 公元前1100 - 771年
* 東周 公元前770 - 256年
* 春秋時代 公元前770 - 476年
* 戰國時代 公元前475 - 221年


儒學及道家思想 

周人於公元前1100年滅商而建立西周王朝,雖然沿用商代遺留的禮儀及制度,但人們開始反抗舊有的禮節及思想。在這段時 期,人們開始道德崩潰,封建諸侯之間時有戰爭,政治及社會極不安定。兩位歷史人物應時冒起,其一是始創儒學的孔夫子(公元前557 - 479年),他是社會改革者和導師,希望將動盪的時局回覆平靜。與其同時代的還有老子(生於公元前590年),是道家思想始創人。道家思想偏向於哲學方面,而儒學則講求實際。這些思想至今仍影響中華文化,對中醫的實踐非常重要。 

宮廷醫師 

周朝醫藥當比商代為進步,但皆集中在王宮,並已有制度。根據《周禮》的記載,東周時期已存在有系統的

孔子和老子

醫療組織,宮廷醫師需接受不同的專科訓練,例如疾醫負責疾病治療工作,屬現代醫學的內科,瘍醫負責治療瘡傷、皮膚病、骨折或其他創傷,食醫負責王宮內飲食調配,相當於今日的營養師。另外還有負責動物治療的醫師,是中國首個法定的獸醫。其時醫術已開始分門別類。 

扁鵲 
扁鵲的行醫手法是以四種中醫檢查步驟為基礎,即觀察病人舌、耳、鼻、眼、面、口及喉;聽診病人語氣、咳嗽或其他身體異動;詳細詢問病人的發病過程;最後會替病人搭脈。他更相信疾病是由於體內陰陽失衡所造成。以此,扁鵲被喻為是婦科、兒科、眼科、精神科及耳鼻喉科的治疾聖手。


《黃帝內經》 
在戰國時代,中國處於七國諸侯分割的情況。約於此時,陰陽學說五行學說開始應用於疾病成因方面,更被發揚到作為學校教材並記載在文獻中。陰陽學說一直未能確定是源自那裡及什麼時期。

《皇帝內經》

 

 

 

 

 




《內經》雖稱是皇帝所寫,其實是由數位作者經過長時間匯集而成的作品,它反映了秦漢以前的醫學成就。是由《素問》《靈樞》兩書合成,《素問》於春秋戰國未期完成,而《靈樞》成書於公元2年,又在漢代(公元前206年至 公元25年)修改。《內經》是中國醫學理論的基礎,內容非常廣泛,除了醫學,亦闡述道德、哲學及宗教。其主題滲透、貫穿道家思想、陰陽學說及五行學說各方面。

道家思想、陰陽學說及五行學說是《內經》的主題思想


在1973-1974年,長沙馬王堆墓穴出土了一批醫學文獻,屬於公元前168年以前的文物,其中有一本叫《五十二病方》,詳細記錄了52種疾病及52種方劑,是中國最早的中藥學參考文獻。雖然如此,《內經》仍是最廣泛參考的文獻之一,現今許多學者仍以《內經》的豐富內容為啟迪。 

 

The Zhou or Chou Dynasty approx. 1100-221BC

This dynasty is divided into four periods:

* Western Zhou 1100-771 BC
* Eastern Zhou 700-256 BC
* Spring and Autumn Period 770-476 BC
* Warring States Period 476-221 BC


* Western Zhou

The Western Zhou people migrated to the Shang region in 1111 BC, initially adopting the Shang's customs. However, over time people started to rebel against the ancient customs and beliefs. It was an age of political and social unrest with a breakdown in the morals of the people. Feudalistic states were constantly at war with one another. 

Confucianism and Taoism 
Two important persons emerged from this period. One was Confucius (557-479 BC). Confucius 

Confucius and Lao-zi

was a social reformist and a teacher. He wanted to restore order in this time of chaos. His contemporary, Lao-zi (born in 590 BC), was the founder ofTaoism. Taoism teachings were more philosophical whereas Confucianism teachings were more practical. Even today their philosophies are still important in the Chinese culture, and have helped shape the practice of Chinese medicine.

* Eastern Zhou

An organized medical system developed during this period.

Court Physicians
According to the book Rites of Zhou orRites of Chou, which recorded the ceremonies or systems for that time, the Eastern Zhou period had an organized medical system in which court officials of the emperor were trained in a variety of medical specialties. For example, jiyi were physicians who cured internal illnesses, yangyi were physicians who cured external illnesses such as wounds, skin problems, broken bones and other traumatic injuries, and shiyi were physicians who dealt with dietary problems. The first official Chinese veterinarians also appeared during this time. 

* Spring/Autumn Period


A number of physicians contributed a great deal of knowledge to TCM in this period. One notable physician was Bian Que. Bian Que's skills were based on the four fundamental examination procedures of Chinese medicine. He would observe his patient's tongue, nose, ears, face, eyes, mouth and throat, listen to his patient's speech, coughing, or other bodily vibrations, take a complete history of the patient's problem, and lastly he would feel the patient's pulse. Bian Que also believed illness was caused by the imbalance of yin and yang. Using these examination techniques, Bian Que was an expert in many fields of medicine including gynecology, pediatrics, ophthalmology, psychiatry and otorhinolaryngology (ENT).

* Warring States Period 

During the Warring States Period China's feudalistic government split into seven different states. It was around this time period that the yin/yang philosophyand the use of five elements to describe causes for illness, were further developed and their uses began to be taught in schools and written about in books.

Huang Di Nei Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Medicine Classic)
Although the Huang Di Nei Jing book's authorship is attributed to the Yellow Emperor, it was actually written

Huang Di Nei Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Medicine Classic)

by several authors over a long period of time. This book is further divided into two sections. The first is the Suwen (The Book of Plain Questions)that was written in the late Spring/Autumn and the Warring States periods. The second part is called the Lingshu (The Vital Axis) and was written sometime in the second century BC with revisions taking place up to the Han Dynasty (206BC- 25AD). This book is very significant because it was one of the earliest concise medical writings about Chinese medicine. Beyond medicine, this book also presents ethical, philosophical and religious considerations; the three themes that run through the book are the theory of Taoism, yin and yang, and the five elements.

The theory of Taoism, yin and yang, and the five elements are the main themes in the Huang Di Nei Jing

In 1973 and 1974, excavation of the Mawangdui tombs revealed medical writing dating back to 168 BC One text called the Wushier Bingfang (The Fifty-two Prescriptions), detailed 52 ailments and 52 prescriptions, and was the earliest written reference of Chinese pharmacology. Despite the fact that these writings are the earliest known Chinese medical references, the Huang Di Nei Jing (The Yellow Emperor's Medicine Classic) still remains one of the most respected and studied texts on Chinese medicine. Even today scholars on Chinese medicine still refer to the wealth of knowledge in this book.
 

 

文章出處:http://shen-nong.com/chi/history/zhou.html